"Tyrant Lizard King"
20 feet ( 6 metres)
6.688-9 tonnes According to Jurassic World
Alberta,Wyoming, Utah, Texas, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Dakota, Colorado, Montana.
Jurassic Park: The Game
- "The most ferocious and insatiable carnivore ever to step on the face of the planet."
Tyrannosaurus rex (tye-RAN-oh-SAWR-us-recks) is one of, if not the, most famous of all dinosaurs species. Tyrannosaurus was the largest of the Tyrannosaur family, and by extension one of the largest theropods, reaching twelve metres in length . Commonly known as "T. rex", this infamous species lived during the Late Cretaceous Period in modern day North America and was therefore among one of the last non-avian dinosaurs.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus had very short arms with only two fingers. Although these were probably nearly useless while hunting, its jaws were not: Tyrannosaurus has an enormous skull armed with teeth the size of bananas. Unlike the teeth of most theropods, the teeth of tyrannosaurids are very thick and capable of crushing bones. The skull and neck bones show that T. rex had the largest neck muscles of any meat-eating dinosaur. It probably used its strong neck to twist and pull off big chunks of meat that it grasped with its jaws. Tyrannosaurus could bite with extremely strong force - one fossilized skeleton shows that it crushed and swallowed the bones of a smaller plant-eating dinosaur.
In popular culture, Tyrannosaurus has an iconic status shared by few other species, helped in no small part by the prominent role of the T.rex in all four films in the Jurassic Park franchise.
Portrayal and Abilities
Description and Statistics
As far as size goes, of the five Tyrannosaurs to prominently appear in the series, the adult female seen in the first film was 43 feet long and between 16 and 17 feet tall, making her one of largest predators to appear in the Jurassic Park trilogy. The sub-adult male to appear in the third film was listed at 37 feet long and only about 10 feet tall at the hip (inaccurately measured at 14.5ft at the top of the skull, which is not a standard form measurement). The infant to appear in the second film appeared to be no more than 3 feet tall and just 6 feet long.
They display some sexual dimorphism. Males have more prominent lacrimal ridges than females. Males also have a tendency to have visible facial scaring (possibly due to battles over territory with other T. rex and carnivores or mates). Females are also brown in color than males, and somewhat larger. Males are slightly smaller than females, and are a molted green in color. They also have a large throat pouch that females seem to lack. Males are typically green, while females are typically moulted brown.
Dr. Alan Grant states that the sight of Tyrannosaurus rex is based on movement, so if you don't move the animal won't see you. Grant uses this knowledge to escape from the T. rex in the novel, and the first and third movies. However, as stated in the second novel by Dr. Richard Levine, this is very unlikely because many animals (including humans) freeze or play dead when they are scared. If the Tyrannosaurus wasn't able to see non-moving creatures, it would miss most of its prey. Levine explains the previous instances in which people escaped from the Tyrannosaurus rex by freezing with: "the only reason it would not eat you is if it was not hungry."
Supporting Dr. Alan Grant's theory is that the Tyrannosaurus may not be able to see you, so to counteract this, the T. rex gives a loud roar to scare its prey into revealing their position by running away. The Tyrannosaurus rex may then make the kill. Supporting Levine's theory, in Jurassic Park the T.rex, when it escapes from its paddock, eats Donald Gennaro which may have satisfied its hunger. This may be why, instead of the Tyrannosaurus eating Grant as well, it only gave a roar to scare him out of her territory. This way the threat to her territory was eliminated.
In the second novel, Michael Crichton takes the blame of the wrong theory, that Tyrannosaurus sight is based on movement, away from Dr. Alan Grant. It is stated that the palaeontologist Dr. John Roxton wrote an article in which he stated that the brain of the Tyrannosaurus rex was very similar to that of frogs. Therefore, Dr. Roxton concluded that T. rex's sight was based on movement. Alan Grant and also the biologist George Baselton had no expertise in brain anatomy and accepted the conclusions of the article.
It is possible that since it was a predator with binocular vision, Tyrannosaurus had trouble seeing stationary prey in the dark, though this is a dubious theory. Dr.Grant suggested should be applied (the 'don't move' tactic) on Isla Sorna when they stumbled upon a Tyrannosaurus rex - in broad daylight. The T. rex killed Gennaro because he while he was still in one place, he was visibly shaking and moving his arms, therefore revealing his position to the T. rex.
In Jurassic Park III, the characters in the story run into a Tyrannosaurus devouring its prey. The T. rex then gives a roar scaring the party into running away, prompting it to give chase. This ironically can support either side of the debate. The Tyrannosaurus rex may have not been able to see the group so it scared them into running so he could find them or he may have not been hungry from eating its prey, so it just wanted to scare the group away by roaring and chasing them away. Supporting this is the fact that in the Jurassic Park novel and film, the Tyrannosaurus chases a jeep away from her territory then ceases the pursuit despite the fact that she could have easily destroyed the jeep.
In Dr. Laura Sorkin's personal journal, she hypothesizes that the movement-based vision of the Tyrannosaurus was caused by Dr. Henry Wu's frog DNA insertion rather than being a natural feature of the animal. However, she also admits that the disability makes the animal safer to observe.
In the Jurassic Park franchise, the Tyrannosaurus are depicted as apex predators, seemingly preferring to ambush their prey. Fictionally, this is attributed to their lack of an ability to see stationary prey. However, in actuality Tyrannosaurus had an excellent binocular vision superior to that of most other dinosaurs. Unlike Velociraptors and the Indominus rex, Tyrannosaurus are not random killers, and are less likely to attack when full. To make the kill, the Tyrannosaurus lunges at its prey to crush its limbs or neck with its devastating bite, which is rated at 35,000 to 57,000 newtons of force in the back teeth, could cause massive damage, which is the largest bite force of any terrestrial animal, other dinosaurs included.
This deadly proficiency for killing can be seen in many entries of the series, with Rexy was able to bite off Lady Margaret's horn with ease in Jurassic Park: The Game. While in Jurassic Park III, even the villainous Spinosaurus was stunned by a bite of a sub-adult and almost lost it's battle with the younger animal. To smaller animals, the bite force of a tyrannosaur has even deadlier results, with a single bite being sufficient to kill a human, a Velociraptor (movie canon) or a Gallimimus with little to no effort, while larger prey would be maimed or killed outright.
- "This isn't hunting behaviour, Ian. They're searching. They came for their infant!"
In The Lost World novel and the film adaptation, Tyrannosaurus is shown as being a protective parent. Tyrannosaurus are shown to pair off during mating, and both parents will remain with their offspring during its growth, exhibiting very powerful parenting and protective instincts, going to great lengths to ensure an infant's safety. Tyrannosaurus are territorial by nature, and will attempt to drive away anything that might be deemed dangerous, whether animate or not. They are known to be efficient parents, with both male and female keeping close guard over infants and bringing them food for a considerable matter of months. They will ferociously defend their offspring during this stage from predators and humans, and will even travel far outside their native territories to find them if they get lost. Like most predators, they presumably teach their young how to hunt once the time comes.
While no T. rex nest has yet been found in the real world, the living relatives of Tyrannosaurus (birds and crocodilians) guard their nests and take care of their babies. Similarly, there is evidence from nests of smaller meat-eaters and from various plant-eaters that many dinosaurs were good parents. So the simplest explanation at present is that, fearsome though it may have been, Tyrannosaurus rex probably looked after its eggs and young.
In Jurassic Park, InGen recreated the Tyrannosaurus. Two Tyrannosaurus were present on Isla Nublar; one adult and one juvenile, although there was no interaction between them. The Tyrannosaurus had a sensitive skin, and therefore sought shelter from the sun under the canopy. It was stated in the novel that dinosaurs are weak in noticing unmoving objects, although this may not be the case. After the power cut, when the creatures break free of confinement and attack the cars. The adult didn't kill anyone, although it nearly killed Dr. Malcolm and almost ate Tim. The juvenile killed Ed Regis. The creature was also a surprisingly good swimmer, described as swimming much like a crocodile, though this is very unlikely in real life.
Dr. Grant and the children later find it sleeping as they raft down a river. When Lex coughs uncontrollably it wakes up and takes to the water, swimming after them, but soon abandons the pursuit when the juvenile T. rex tries to move in on the adult's onshore kill. Muldoon later shoots it with a very large tranquilizer dart, which causes the Tyrannosaurus rex to pass out while it was trying to eat Tim, saving Dr. Grant and the children who were seeking refuge behind a waterfall. It is possible, although not directly mentioned, that the adult Tyrannosaurus drowned. The survivors, fleeing by helicopter, have one last look at the juvenile before it and the other dinosaurs are destroyed.
In The Lost World, a pair of Tyrannosaurus is present at Isla Sorna. They have a nest on the east side of the island. A team led by Dr. Ian Malcolm arrive at the island to rescue Dr. Richard Levine. But when the male T. rex sees their car in his territory the male puts his flag on the car. The Tyrannosaurus rex pretends to attack Dr. Jack Thorne and Dr. Richard Levine to make them leave their territory. The team of Dr. Lewis Dodgson tries to steal the eggs of Tyrannosaurus, but the attempt fails and George Baselton is eaten.
One of T. rex infants is wounded, therefore Eddie Carr takes the infant to the trailers and the team puts a temporary cast on its broken leg. But before they can bring the infant back, the parents have reached the trailers to collect their child. Once the child is safe, they attack the trailers and push them over the cliff. The Tyrannosaurus tries to get Sarah Harding and Dodgson, who are hiding under a car. Dr. Harding pushes Dr. Dodgson away and the T. rex takes Dr. Dodgson to his nest as food for the infants.
In Jurassic Park, the Tyrannosaurus was to be one of the main attractions at Jurassic Park. The female in this film (nicknamed Rexy) is supposedly the largest Tyrannosaurus seen in the series, at 13 meters (43 feet) long and between 5.2-4.9 meters (16-17 feet) tall. This makes her one of the largest Tyrannosaurus on record. John Hammond reveals the park has a Tyrannosaurus rex shortly after the visitors arrive on the island, shocking both Ellie Sattler and Alan Grant, who nearly faints upon hearing the news. Later, when the visitors reach the Tyrannosaur Paddock, the Tyrannosaurus doesn't appear; even when it is lured with a goat, prompting great disappointment from the visitors.
Later that night and in the aftermath of the power-cut, the tour vehicles are stranded near the T. rex paddock. Rexy appears to test the disabled fence and promptly breaks out. After being attracted to the waving flashlight in the lead car, she attacked the car and its passengers, Lex and Tim before being distracted by Grant and Malcolm. During the resulting chaos, the Tyrannosaur killed Gennaro and wounded Dr. Malcolm. After failing to pinpoint Grant and Lex's location, it attempted to flush them out by pushing the wrecked lead car down the road and off a steep incline in its enclosure.
Later, when Ellie and Muldoon arrived in a jeep searching for Dr. Grant and the children, the female returned and promptly charged at their jeep, pursuing it out of the vicinity, then ended the pursuit just as they crashed through a fallen tree. The T. rex appears again in the Gallimimus flocking scene. As Dr. Grant and the children were making their way through the park, they were nearly trampled by stampeding Gallimimus, which ran directly into the path of the Tyrannosaur, which managed to catch and devour one of the fleeing smaller theropods.
Her final appearance was as the unlikely heroine in the T. rex Rescue Scene. In the Visitor Center, the visitors are trapped by raptors, which are about to attack. Rexy bursts into the Visitor Center and grabs one of the raptors with her jaws. The other raptor attacks Rexy, but Rexy kills it without much trouble. As the visitors escape with their lives, Rexy roars triumphantly as a banner reading "When Dinosaurs Ruled the World" falls in front of her.
Jurassic Park: The Game
The Tyrannosaurus seen throughout the original film appeared in Telltale's Jurassic Park: The Game as one of the main antagonists. It is first seen in Triceratops Trouble, where it faces off against Lady Margaret, the alpha Triceratops, almost killing Gerry Harding, his daughter Jess, who had come to visit the island earlier, and a very ill Nima Cruz, who was unconscious at the time. The two of them narrowly escape with their lives and wait out the night in the Triceratops Maintenance Building as the two titans clash.
The T. rex then makes its second appearance in The Visitor Center. After a harrowing climax, Dr. Harding and Jess make it outside, managing to hit the Tyrannosaurus rex with a few tranquilizer darts. Nima, now fully recovered, helps them drive away the predator by sending the jeep wheeling away, and the Tyrannosaurus, now in a sedating, confused stupor due to the darts, follows the lone tour car. It would later be found to be missing the roof and badly damaged. In "Did You Hear That?" it appears in the clearing where Yoder, Oscar Morales and Nima crashed the helicopter. Yoder and Nima, along with the Parasaurolophus that the predator is chasing, run to the area near the water tower and the tunnels. The T. rex loses the Parasaurolophus, but kills a loitering Velociraptor, gaining access to another Parasaurolophus its pack had already killed.
It makes its final appearance by the dock in the final climax of the game, eating Billy Yoder. It also eats Nima Cruz if the player chooses the ending to rescue the embryos. The climax culminates to the T. rex chasing Dr. Harding across the cargo bay before he finally makes it onto the boat, with Jess and with or without Nima. If the player chooses the opposite ending to rescue [Jess, it steps on the Barbasol can, destroying the embryos. It is apparent from Rexy's appearance in Jurassic World and the lack of a mention in the official history of the island on the Jurassic World viral website that the napalm bombing foreshadowed in the game did not occur.
The Lost World: Jurassic Park
A pair of Tyrannosaurus; a male and a female, and a baby are present in The Lost World. Roland Tembo captures the infant to lure the male into the open so he can capture it. The infant is rescued by Dr. Sarah Harding and Nick Van Owen, who then put a temporary cast on its broken leg. Unfortunately, the cries of the infant draw its parents to the research trailers. Dr. Harding releases the infant in hopes that the adults will leave, but they attempt to dispose of the invaders by pushing the trailers over a nearby cliff and into the sea. Eddie manages to keep them from falling, but the adults return unexpectedly, angered by his efforts to save them, and proceed to tear through the car and eat him.
They later pursue the group, now traveling with Ludlow's party and kill a number of people. Roland manages to use a tranquilizer on the male and shoot him down, which is transported to San Diego on the ship S.S. Venture. Despite the being restrained a cage would barely allow it to move, the Rex breaks free and devours the crew during the journey and is accidentally released after the ship smashes into the dock. Dehydrated and hungry, the Rex rampages through the city in search of food and water, finding the latter in the form of a swimming pool and the former in the form of a pet dog. Although the dog's owners find the Rex after their son is awakened by its loud growl, we do not know if they are eaten or not.
Doctors Ian Malcolm and Sarah Harding retrieve the infant from a secure facility that it was brought to via helicopter. They use it to lure the adult back to the S.S. Venture, placing it in the cargo hold. Ludlow goes in to recapture it, but is trapped when the adult descends behind him and leaves the rest of the killing to the infant. Sarah manages to use a tranquilizer on the adult before an attempt was sent out to kill it, and it and its infant are transported back to Isla Sorna to rejoin the female. The number of deaths is not specified, but it seems that several were caused by panic rather than by the Rex itself. The T. rex did however, cause considerable material damage, most notably knocking a bus in a Blockbuster video store.
The male Tyrannosaurus was 18 feet tall and 40 feet long. The female was 19.5 feet tall and 43 feet long. The infant was 3 feet tall and 6 feet long.
Jurassic Park III
In Jurassic Park III, a male Tyrannosaurus was stumbled upon by Dr. Grant and the others in the northwestern part of Isla Sorna. According to size-charts in the film's poster, the Tyrannosaurus from Jurassic Park III was 11 meter (37 feet) long and 4.5 meter (14.5 feet) tall. These measures are close to the best size estimates of Tyrannosaurus. However, the animal is smaller than the Tyrannosaurs from the previous films.
The Tyrannosaurus has a more green skin color. It is feeding on the corpse of a dead dinosaur. This is an allusion to Jack Horner's idea that the T. rex was mostly a scavenger. When Grant and the others run away it immediately gave chase, possibly to protect its kill or chase the humans away. It crosses paths with the Spinosaurus. The two carnivores engaged in a vicious battle and the T. rex seemed to have the upper hand in the fight until the Spinosaurus grabs the neck with its jaws, snapping its neck. The T. rex falls dead and presumably eaten by the Spinosaurus. Tyrannosaurus was later mentioned when Eric Kirby told Dr. Grant that he collected T. rex urine. Dr. Grant asked Eric how he collected the urine, Eric simply said that he did not want to know.
In Jurassic World Tyrannosaurus is one of the attractions of the new park on Isla Nublar. The "T. rex Kingdom" is located at the center of the park, near the Jurassic World Lagoon. The park is currently home to a Tyrannosaur,Rexy from the first film who is claimed to have been living on Isla Nublar for the past twenty five years, indicating that she was born in 1990, three years prior to the Isla Nublar Incident in 1993. Rexy is touted by the administration of Jurassic World as "our most fearsome attraction". However, the declining visitor rates to Jurassic World prompted the creation of Indominus rex, a genetically modified hybrid claimed by Henry Wu to be created to be larger than a T.rex.
Tyrannosaurus has appeared in all Jurassic Park games. Listed below is a list of notable games featuring the dinosaur.
Tyrannosaurus is featured in the arcade version of Jurassic Park. In the game, the player encounters the T. rex three times within the game and is a boss at all times. In Area one the Tyrannosaurus is the first dinosaur you encounter and is chasing you while you have to shoot at her head. At the end of Act two you encounter it again and you must defeat it the same way as the first time by shooting at its head, this time however the rex is harder to kill and has a health bar. At the end of the game in Act four you encounter the T. rex along with a second and you must defeat them at the same time by shooting at their heads, just like the previous time both of them also have health bars.
Tyrannosaurus appears in the arcade adaptation of The Lost World: Jurassic Park; both the male and the female T. rex's from the film served as the game's bosses, the female as first boss in Stage 1 and the male as the last boss in Stage 5 after the female. The baby Tyrannosaurus is featured in Stages 4 and 5.
Tyrannosaurus appears in Jurassic Park: Chaos Island, as one of the strongest dinosaurs and the hardest to kill. The baby T. rex is also featured in two of the missions. In the bonus mission taking place during the San Diego incident, the player plays as the Tyrannosaurus rex; who oddly in the game is female, instead of male. The rex in the game resembles the Bull T. rex from The Lost World Series 1 toyline.
Tyrannosaurus is featured in the video game Warpath: Jurassic Park. Its attack patterns were the same as Acrocanthosaurus and Cryolophosaurus and has 3 colors: blue, green, and blue with orange stripes. Its arena was Freighter Deck.
In Jurassic Park: Trespasser, Tyrannosaurus is an enemy, being the most powerful adversary in the game. It is invincible, unless being killed by the Toxic Rifle, or other hidden weapons. It is said that InGen made seven T. rex, meaning seven kings of the prehistoric world, each of which would be faced at one point during the course of the game. The colors of some of the Tyrannosaurus rex were based on The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It is first seen in the Industrial Jungle and last seen in The Ascent's first part.
The Tyrannosaurus in Ascent 1 is called the "Alpha Tyrannosaurus" according to ingame files. The Alpha Tyrannosaurus also makes an appearance in the Trespasser Demo as well. In addition, another Tyrannosaurus skin didn't make the cut. This Tyrannosaurus was a brighter green than the normal green T. rex. It is unknown why this green Tyrannosaurus was scrapped, but it might have had to do with the fact that the skin was too high in quality.
Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis
Tyrannosaurus is one of the main dinosaurs in the game Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis. It is a 5-star carnivore, and along with Spinosaurus, it is the most powerful carnivore in the game. It will devour guests, swallowing the guest whole after first shaking them around violently, making it mirror the death of Gennaro in the first film. The T. rex in the game is green, reflecting the appearance of the specimen seen in Jurassic Park III, though a number of user-created reskins depicting the animal as it appeared in other films can be found on the internet. The Tyrannosaurus' sociability among others of its kind is usually isolated, when another Rex encounters another they engage in combat against one another for territorial rights which eventually leads to death. It is seldom seen where both dinosaurs coexist with one another.
Tyrannosaurus is feared by most of the herbivores and small carnivores in the game. It does not scare the Brachiosaurus because it is too big to be attacked. The Spinosaurus can eliminate the predator with a Jurassic Park III-style snap to the neck, though the T. rex can also kill the Spinosaur using a similar method, crushing its neck with its powerful jaws.
Jurassic Park III: Park Builder
Jurassic Park: Builder
Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the available dinosaurs in the simulation game Jurassic Park: Builder.
T. rex has appeared in all toy lines.
- Though often referred to as "T-Rex", this is incorrect. Scientifically, it should be referred to as "T. rex", as "rex" is the scientific name for the species.
- It is commonly believed that the Tyrannosaurus was the main antagonist of the film, but this is incorrect; the raptors were the true antagonists. The T. rex was merely an anti-hero. However, she can also be considered the star dinosaur, as Spielberg actually altered the ending prior to filming to include the T. rex, knowing the audience would be disappointed if she did not return one last time.
- The face of the Buck is adorned with many facial scars and many of the teeth in his mouth are broken or missing. This is indicative towards the animal participating in fights for mating rights or dominance.
- It's curious that Roland wishes to hunt the Tyrannosaurus Buck when the female Tyrannosaurus is actually larger. This could possibly stem from that fact that Roland is a professional hunter and in sport hunting it is the male that is prized for its size and adornment and Roland did not know that it is the female that is holds the size.
- The T. rex animatronic in Jurassic Park III was actually the same animatronic for the Buck in The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Stan Winston Studios repainted the animatronic lighter colors in order to represent a sub-adult individual, however, they can both still be recognized as the same robot by the facial scarring on the right side of the muzzle.
- It has been confirmed that Rexy did indeed survive the napalm bombing, and is currently the only Tyrannosaurus at Jurassic World.However the release of a video on the Creation Lab has revealed that they do have DNA samples of Tyrannosaurus and possibly more will be created.
- For videos related to this article, see the media page. Likewise click here for other images and videos related to this article.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Holtz T.R., Brett-Surman M., Dinosaur Field Guide, page 128.
- ↑ Jurassic World map.
- ↑ http://www.jurassicworld.com/park-map/tyrannosaurus-rex-kingdom/.
- ↑ http://www.jurassicworld.com/park-map/.
- ↑ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJJrkyHas78
- ↑ http://www.scified.com/site/jurassicworld/there-is-only-1-t-rex-at-jurassic-world-and-its-the-same-one-from-jurassic-park
|Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Baryonyx • Brachiosaurus • Dilophosaurus • Gallimimus • Herrerasaurus • Metriacanthosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Proceratosaurus • Pteranodon • Segisaurus • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Compsognathus • Corythosaurus • Edmontosaurus • Gallimimus • Mamenchisaurus • Pachycephalosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic Park III Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Baryonyx • Brachiosaurus • Ceratosaurus • Compsognathus • Corythosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Spinosaurus • Stegosaurus • Suchomimus • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic World Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Apatosaurus • Baryonyx • Dimorphodon • Edmontosaurus • Gallimimus • Indominus rex • Metriacanthosaurus • Microceratus • Mosasaurus • Pachycephalosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Stegosaurus • Suchomimus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Playable Warpath Dinosaurs|
|Acrocanthosaurus • Albertosaurus • Ankylosaurus • Carcharodontosaurus • Cryolophosaurus • Giganotosaurus • Megaraptor • Pachycephalosaurus • Spinosaurus • Stygimoloch • Styracosaurus • Suchomimus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex|