"Tyrant Lizard King"
4 meter (13 feet)
12.5 meter (41 feet)
7 tons (14,000 lbs)
Novel canon appearances
Movie canon appearances
Jurassic Park: The Game
Theme park appearances
- "The most ferocious and insatiable carnivore ever to step on the face of the planet."
- —Ed Regis(src)
Tyrannosaurus rex is arguably the most famous dinosaur of them all. Tyrannosaurus was the last and largest of the Tyrannosaurs. Commonly known as "T. rex", this species lived during the Late Cretaceous Period in modern day North America and was therefore among one of the last non-avian dinosaurs.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus had very short arms with only two fingers. Despite the limbs' size, each were able to bench-press about 400 pounds. Although these were probably nearly useless while hunting, its jaws were not: Tyrannosaurus has an enormous skull armed with teeth the size of bananas. Unlike the teeth of most theropods, the teeth of tyrannosaurids are very thick and capable of crushing bones and with a bite force of a minimum 4 tons of force and probably more, crushing bone, ripping flesh, and bursting blood vessels of the victim. The skull and neck bones show that T. rex had the largest neck muscles of any meat-eating dinosaur. It probably used its strong neck to twist and pull off big chunks of meat that it grasped with its jaws while supporting the huge head. Tyrannosaurus could bite with extremely strong force - one fossilized skeleton shows that it crushed and swallowed the bones of a smaller plant-eating dinosaur while another shows a Tyrannosaurus coprolite with the crushed frill of a Triceratops.
In popular culture, Tyrannosaurus has an iconic status shared by few other species, helped in no small part by the prominent role of the T. rex in all four films in the Jurassic Park franchise. It is the secondary antagonist turned anti-hero in the first movie, a role it retains in all movies.
Deviations from the Real Dinosaur & Biology
The clones, like all of InGen's cloned theropods, had pronated hands that the real dinosaur lacked. They were noticeably larger than the original animal. This can be seen in the broader skull and its feet, which were so large that the soles of the feet were as big as a man unlike the originals. The skull itself had exposed front teeth and lacks the proposed flesh coverings of the teeth, a trait similar to an alligator and found in other cloned theropods, such as Ceratosaurus and Spinosaurus.
The cloned Tyrannosaurus had fully scaled skin as juveniles and as adults, when it is considered by scientists that Tyrannosaurus was feathered at least some parts of its body. Its skin was thick, being able to withstand the razor-sharp toe claws of a Velociraptor, and the sharp claws of the hybrid Indominus rex that were able to debilitate a full grown Apatosaurus as well as the strong bite of the Indominus which was able to crack the bullet-proof glass of a Gyrosphere. However, many of the adult Tyrannosaurs encountered by humans would bear at least one scar that would be found on their head or neck. Two adult males had a single scar on the side of their face. The individual known as "Rexy" had several scars on her neck from a cloned Velociraptor that pounced on her.
Sexual dimorphism was present in the recreated Tyrannosaurus, such as the males having a throat wattle and much more prominent brows. The males also had deeper vocalizations than the females, though the female Rexy also had deepened vocalizations when she got older. Every adult Tyrannosaur encountered each had their own unique skin color and pattern. Males tended to have a green skin color and females tended to have a brown color while the juvenile known as Junior was a mix of the two aforementioned colors.
The clones seemed to have had an accelerated growth cycle as the Tyrannosaurus rex Rexy was the size of a 28-year-old when she was only three and the only juvenile observed, Junior, was the size of a two-year-old tyrannosaurid yet was still highly dependent on his parents.
As far as size goes, many different lengths and heights are shown in movie related material like posters and websites (see table). These values pendulate around the real-life estimates of the average T. rex. Many fans assumed these different sizes represent the sizes of the individual Tyrannosaurs seen in the films. However, there is no evidence for this connection.
|Jurassic Park related material:|
|12 m (40 ft)||6 m (20 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||7.5 m (25 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||6 m (20 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||7.6 m (25 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||5.4-7.6 meters (18-25 ft)|||
|The Lost World related material:|
|12 m (39 ft)||5.5 m (18 ft)|||
|10-12 m (33-39 ft)||4.3 m (14 ft)|||
|Jurassic Park III related material:|
|11.10 m (37 ft)||4.35 m (14.5 ft)|||
|11 m (37 ft)||4.5 m (14.5 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)|||
|11.3 m (37 ft)||4.4 m (14.4)|||
|Jurassic World related material:|
|4.6 m (15 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||5 m (16 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)|||
|13.4 m (44 ft)|||
|13.4 m (44 ft)||5.1 m (16.8 ft)|||
|12 m (40 ft)||4.5-6 m (15-20 ft)|||
The clones were known to hunt prey by seeing movement, which is currently unknown in the real Tyrannosaurus and might be an abnormality because the originals had excellent eyesight and sense of smell that aided them in hunting. According to in-universe paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant, the films' equivalent to the real Tyrannosaurus did indeed have motion-based vision, though it is unknown if this was an accepted scientific fact in the film's universe or a theory or hypothesis. Another explanation for the motion based movement was frog DNA as this is stated by Phil Tippett, dinosaur supervisor for the first film and the InGen Field Journal from Jurassic Park: The Game suggests this as well, though it is disputed on whether JP: TG is within the same continuity with the films. When asked in an interview with Biography, Jack Horner, paleontological consultant for all the films, said in regards to the motion-based vision: [T. rexes] are like birds or any animal. If you stand perfectly still, there are very few animals who recognize you as a threat."
From what has been observed of wild cloned Tyrannosaurus, they were solitary animals. The only time more than one Tyrannosaur was seen together is when they formed families to raise their offspring. There is fossil evidence that the real Tyrannosaurus rex were cannibals (though still capable of parenting) and they might have even roamed in packs, though none of these aforementioned behaviors have been observed with the clones. The cloned female Tyrannosaurus were known to be ambush predators.
The Tyrannosaurus rex (both cloned and in real life) were great parents to their young. They would usually have one offspring at a time who would stay in a nest while the parents would provide food for it for about 2 weeks until the juvenile learned to hunt on its own. If a Tyrannosaurus baby went missing, its parents would go search for it by hearing its cries or by smelling its blood. Even if they had retrieved their juvenile if Tyrannosaur parents smelled their offspring's blood on a potential threat they would confront it.
The cloned Tyrannosaurus created by InGen reflect this level of intelligence in several instances. Rexy in particular has shown a good deal of intelligence during both the Isla Nublar incidents in both 1993 and 2015. In the former, she tested the electrical fences after the power outage, seemingly aware of the lack of power before attempting to escape. During the incident in 2015, Rexy showed enough intelligence not to attack Blue during and after their fight with the Indominus, aware of key role the Velociraptor played in distracting the hybrid as it attempted to kill her.
Both the male and female Tyrannosaurus during the Isla Sorna Incident in 1997 also showed a high degree of intelligence, seen in their efforts to protect their infant from the humans, even going so far as to push a trailer over a cliff and hunt in a familial pack.
It is unknown if real Tyrannosaurs had knowledge like this, however it is not impossible as many of T .rex's modern relatives show high levels of intelligence.
In the films, the non-cloned Tyrannosaurus rex apparently had motion-based vision. Whether this is a confirmed fact, a theory, or a hypothesis is unknown, but Dr. Alan Grant believed this to be true.
There has only been one Tyrannosaurus rex known to have been transported to Isla Nublar to live in Jurassic Park: an individual known as Rexy. She first arrived on the island in 1990 and lived in the Tyrannosaur Paddock of Jurassic Park.According to JurassicWorld.com, the paddock was originally designed to contain both an adult and a juvenile, though it is unknown if a juvenile was ever transported to live there.
The Tyrannosaurus rex Rexy was supposed to have been seen by InGen's endorsement team on their tour of Jurassic Park. However, despite attempts by Ray Arnold to lure her out of her paddock with a live goat, Rexy did not reveal herself to the visitors.
When Dennis Nedry disabled most of Jurassic Park's security with Whte rbt.obj, Rexy was one of the dinosaurs that were able to roam the island freely. One of the embryos Nedry stole from the Cold Storage Room was Tyrannosaurus.
After she ate the goat that was left for her, she attacked the endorsement team who were stranded near her paddock because of Whte rbt.obj disabling the power and even killed one of their members, Donald Gennaro. After pushing the tour vehicle of Lex and Tim Murphy off a cliff with Tim still inside the vehicle and Dr. Grant and Lex at the front of the car, she attacked Dr. Ellie Sattler and Robert Muldoon who were searching for the survivors at the time.
In the morning, Rexy arrived in the Gallimimus Enclosure and killed an individual that lived there. Her next destination was the Visitor Center where inside she killed The Big One, a violent Velociraptor, and her remaining subordinate. This battle gave her scars on her neck, which remained for the rest of her life.
After the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993 Rexy became wild on Isla Nublar, probably living off surviving dinosaurs as a source of food and as a way to counter the Lysine contingency. Rexy remained this way for over a decade.
Wild on Isla Sorna
The Tyrannosaurus rex on Isla Sorna became wild after Hurricane Clarissa struck the island. They were freed by either breaking out of their cages or by the workers on the island before they fled. To counter the Lysine contingency, T. rex and the other carnivorous dinosaurs ate herbivores who in turn ate lysine rich plants as one of their sources of lysine.
A Tyrannosaurus rex family was involved in both the Isla Sorna Incident of 1997 and the following San Diego Incident. Their involvement began when the son was taken from the parents by InGen Hunters Roland Tembo and his hunting partner Ajay Sidhu so they could use him as bait to lure the father because Roland wanted to hunt a male Tyrannosaurus. While the infant called for his parents to rescue, Peter Ludlow accidentally broke his leg while drunk when he was startled by the sound of an animal moving through the undergrowth.
After the Gatherers freed the dinosaurs captured by the InGen Hunters, one of them named Nick Van Owen discovered the infant T. rex and his broken leg. He decided to take him back to his team's mobile labortory, where he and Dr. Sarah Harding fixed the juvenile's leg. However, his parents arrived after first aid was applied to the juvenile and cornered the RV. Dr. Sarah Harding realized that the two Tyrannosaurs weren't exhibiting hunting behavior so she convinced her fellow Gatherers to hand the young T. rex to his parents.
The Tyrannosaurus parents put their child in a safe place, but they soon returned to the mobile lab to push it over a cliff. However, Eddie Carr saved his fellow Gatherers from falling with the RV, but soon afterward the Tyrannosaurus parents split him in half and ate him as he was trying to escape them. Even though the family was reunited, the Tyrannosaur parents traveled to the new camp of the Gatherers and the Hunters because they smelled the blood of their son on Dr. Sarah Harding's shirt. InGen Hunter Carter alerted his group upon seeing the Tyrannosaur Buck investigating the tent of Dr. Harding and Kelly Malcolm.
While the Hunters fled, the Doe followed, killing many of them in the process. As the Tyrannosaur Buck continued his search, he was tranquilized by Roland Tembo. After the Tyrannosaur Doe's attack, Peter Ludlow ordered the remaining InGen Hunters to confiscate the Tyrannosaur Buck and recapture the juvenile T. rex for Jurassic Park: San Diego. But his plan went astray when the Tyrannosaur Buck escaped confinement upon reaching San Diego, California and went rampaging throughout the city, killing several civilians.
To stop the chaos, gatherers Sarah Harding and Ian Malcolm broke into Jurassic Park: San Diego to steal the baby Tyrannosaur so they use him to lure his father back into the docks. The plan worked, but Peter Ludlow was killed by the Tyrannosaurs when he tried to recapture the juvenile. The Tyrannosaur Buck's rampage ended when Dr. Harding tranquilized him before the San Diego police could shoot him. Both Tyrannosaurus father and son were reunited once more with the female when they were transported back to Isla Sorna.
During his time marooned on Isla Sorna, Eric Kirby collected T. rex urine that he used to detour small carnivorous dinosaurs such as Compsognathus though he also learned that it attracted Spinosaurus as well.
While a male was eating a Parasaurolophus, he encountered a group of humans consisting of Dr. Alan Grant, Udesky, Billy Brennan, and Paul and Amanda Kirby. They tried to avoid him by standing still, but the Tyrannosaurus rex noticed them and began to chase them. His chase of the humans ended quickly when he encountered a Spinosaurus, who was the first to pursue the humans. The two large theropods let out a loud roar as they initiated a fight. Unknown to the male, he nearly stepped on Dr. Alan Grant who was under him when getting into a stance just before the first strike in the conflict was made.
The male Tyrannosaurus was the first to attack in the dual, biting down on the neck of the Spinosaurus and bringing it down to the forest floor. The Spinosaurus regained balance, however, and began to snap at his flanks, which he returned the favor. After the Spinosaurus swiped at him, the male decided to ram into his opponent head first. This turned out to have been a bad move for the Tyrannosaurus rex, as the Spinosaur was barely phased from the attack and then proceeded to bite down on his neck. As the male roared in agony, the Spinosaur, with support from its arms, proceeded to snap his neck. The Tyrannosaurus rex's body collapsed to the ground, nearly crushing Dr. Alan Grant while he was escaping. 
The Spinosaurus then claimed the corpse of its fallen foe triumphantly.
Rexy who had been wild on Isla Nublar for over a decade was captured sometime during Jurassic World's construction or years of operation to live as an attraction for the park, in particular, the T. rex Kingdom attraction.
As the remaining members of the Jurassic World Velociraptor Pack fought the Indominus in Jurassic World's Main Street, the T. rex known as Rexy was released by Lowery Cruthers and lured to the fight by Claire Dearing per suggestion from her nephew, Gray Mitchell. The fight was going well until the Indominus overpowered the Tyrannosaurus. Right as the hybrid was about to kill her, the Velociraptor Blue, attacked the Indominus. With help from Blue, the Indominus was overpowered and thrown to the side of the Jurassic World Lagoon where the Mosasaurus residing there leaped out of the water and killed the hybrid.
The Tyrannosaurus seen throughout the original film appeared in Telltale's Jurassic Park: The Game as one of the main antagonists. In the InGen Field Guide included in the Jurassic Park: The Game Deluxe Edition set the size of the T. rex is given as being 40 ft from the snout to the tip of the tail, a 13 ft height at the hips, and weighing 7 tons.
She is first seen when she faces off against Lady Margaret, the alpha Triceratops, after her encounter with Malcolm, Muldoon, and Ellie in the first film. The conflict almost kills Gerry Harding, his daughter Jess, who had come to visit the island earlier, and a very ill Nima Cruz, who was unconscious at the time. The two of them narrowly escape with their lives and wait out the night in the Triceratops Maintenance Building as the two titans clash.
The T. rex then returns to Jurassic Park's Visitor Center after the killing the raptors at the end of the first film. After a harrowing climax, Dr. Harding and Jess make it outside, managing to hit the Tyrannosaurus rex with a few tranquilizer darts, but this fails to stop the T. rex. They finally distract the T. rex when Gerry tells Dr. Sorkin to start up the tour vehicle waiting for them, which distracts Rexy.
Rexy appears again in the clearing where Yoder, Oscar Morales and Nima crashed the helicopter chasing a Parasaurolophus. When the T. rex unintentionally throws scrap metal at the tree Yoder was in, he fall to the ground and the T. rex decides to pursue Nima and Yoder. The two run to the Parasaurolophus Paddock where the T. rex kills a loitering Velociraptor, gaining access to another Parasaurolophus its pack had already killed. However, after escaping, Yoder goes back to the paddock to retrieve the Barbosal can he had lost and manages to escape before Rexy kills him.
She makes her final appearance by the dock in the final climax of the game, eating Billy Yoder. She also eats Nima Cruz if the player chooses the ending to rescue the embryos. The climax culminates to the T. rex chasing Dr. Harding across the cargo bay before he finally makes it onto the boat, with Jess and with or without Nima. If the player chooses the opposite ending to rescue Jess, Rexy steps on the Barbasol can, destroying the embryos.
Deviations from the Real Dinosaur & Biology
Like all the cloned theropods, the cloned Tyrannosaurus had pronated hands. These traits were most likely implemented by InGen on purpose, as at the time T. rex had been cloned the study disproving pronated hands had not been published.
At Version 4.1 and from the age of two and into adulthood, the clones had fully scaled skin. As adults, the skin was very sensitive in this version of Tyrannosaurus and it could sunburn easily, causing them to seek shade from the sunlight. The skin color of the adults was described as being a mottled reddish brown. The adults were known to be semi-aquatic and swam like a crocodile and had very strong and flexible tongue akin to an elephant's trunk.
The Tyrannosaurus that were wild on Isla Sorna were similar to the Version 4.1 Tyrannosaurus, but was capable of somehow changing sex in the absence of rana.
There was sexual dimorphism among the clones. One of the most visible traits between the sexes was that females had longer tails than the males. This seems to have been done intentionally by InGen scientists as at the time of the cloning process there was a belief that there was sexual dimorphism in the real T. rex. The Isla Sorna map featured on the first pages of the novel The Lost World give the length of the Tyrannosaurus as 42 ft (12.8 meters), but it is unknown which sex this represents.
The clones showed great parental care for their young. Tyrannosaurs would make pair bonds after mating and would constantly tend to their nests. The only known nest made by the cloned T. rex was a mud mound that was nearly 4 feet high and the female who owned this nest laid a total of 6 eggs.
Paleontologist Dr. John Roxton once created casts of the brain case of Tyrannosaurus and concluded it was similar to amphibians and thus concluded that the eyesight of Tyrannosaurus was based on movement. Several paleontologists believed his theory, including George Baselton. However, some, like Dr. Richard Levine did not believe his theory. Levine argued that because the common defense mechanism in prey animals is to stand still and a predator has to be able to see them, it would be impossible for an animal such as T. rex to have motion-based vision.
Another theory about Tyrannosaurus vision that was proposed by Alan Grant was that T. rex could become confused in a rain storm because it could not adapt to wet climates. Dr. Levine did not believe this theory either. Dr. Grant also believed that Tyrannosaurus were scavengers rather than hunters.
Two Version 4.1Tyrannosaurus were shipped to Isla Nublar as attractions for Jurassic Park: a two year old juvenile and an adult (whom Jurassic Park game warden Robert Muldoon later dubbed "Rexy" during the InGen Incident) . While living in the enclosure, the juvenile kept her distance from the adult and learned to catch fish at the lagoon of the enclosure. Since the Sauropod Paddock was nearby, the adult would stare at the Apatosaurus nearby and would wiggle her forearms in frustration. There was a problem in the paddock as tyrannosaurs would sometimes get sick from something in the water of the lagoon.
After the power cut, the creatures broke free of their enclosure. The juvenile escaped first and the adult escaped second, then proceeded to attack the cars. The adult didn't kill anyone, although she nearly killed Dr. Malcolm and almost ate Tim. After the attack, the juvenile later killed Ed Regis.
The next day, the adult hunts and kills a Hadrosaurus, then falls asleep near the Raft Storage Building with her kill. Dr. Grant and the children later find her sleeping and managed to acquire a raft that they used to go down a river, but when Lex starts to cough uncontrollably she woke up and took to the water, swimming after them, though she abandoned the pursuit when she sees the juvenile T. rex with dead Apatosaurus.
After an unsuccessfully chasing the juvenile, the adult found herself in the jungles of the Jungle River Cruise. While there, she made a failed attempt at attack Dr. Grant and the kids in their raft before disturbing a pair of Dilophosaurus in courtship. Afterward, she is found by Muldoon and Donald Gennaro. Muldoon shoots she with a very large tranquilizer dart, which causes the Tyrannosaurus rex to pass out while she was trying to eat Tim behind a waterfall. It is possible, although not directly mentioned, that the adult Tyrannosaurus drowned as she is never retrieved by the staff.
Wild on Isla Sorna
Though the Tyrannosaurus on Isla Nublar were destroyed, there were still surviving individuals on the neighboring island Isla Sorna. From 1988-1989, after six weeks of goats milk, all the carnivores being raised, including Tyrannosaurus, were fed a protein from ground up sheep. Eventually, this allowed for the spread of the prion known as "DX" among the cloned dinosaurs. To combat this, they outfitted the dinosaurs, including Tyrannosaurus, with Grumbach field tags and released them into the wild, tracking them through a radio network.
At some point after November 1989 or later, InGen personal abandoned the island and the work they were doing, the most likely cause being the company's bankruptcy. By 1995, there were two adult T. rex on the island, a male and female, and had a nest located south of the island's Village. It is unknown how the male existed as Tyrannosaurus rex was not among the six dinosaurs with amphibian DNA and the cloned dinosaurs were irradiated to destroy gonadal tissue.
At the time of the expedition, two eggs in the nest of the Tyrannosaurus couple had hatched.
While the expedition team lead by Dr. Ian Malcolm was exploring the village's manufacturing plant, the male Tyrannosaurus entered the area. Having been alerted by Arby Benton over the radio of their Ford Explorer and seeing the approaching T. rex on the car's dashboard, the men stayed tensely in the car. During the male's examination, he scent marked the car before returning to his nest.
As the male Tyrannosaurus traveled to the nest, Dr. Richard Levine spotted the carnivore and proceeded to follow him via bicycle. Upon reaching the nest, Dr. Levine climbed up a tree where he observed the parental behavior of the large carnivores. Arby saw Levine when he was following the T. rex on the Site B Network and asked Dr. Jack "Doc" Thorne if he had seen Levine, which Throne had not. Since the purpose of the expedition team's arrival was to find Dr. Levine Throne asked Arby how and where he had seen Levine. After receiving Richard's coordinates, Throne took the motorcycle on the Explorer and followed the male Tyrannosaurus to the T. rex nest. When Jack found Levine, Levine accidentally fell from the tree he was in. His fall made too much noise which alerted the tyrannosaur parents. One of them chased the two men our of their nest and briefly pursued them when they were on Throne's motorcycle until they out of range of the nesting ground.
Later, the team of Biosyn agents lead by Dr. Lewis Dodgson tried to steal the eggs of Tyrannosaurus. The attempt fails, resulting in George Baselton being eaten, Howard King breaking the leg of one of the babies, and their modified jeep being pushed stuck in thick undergrowth. King and Dodgson were both rendered unconscious from the raid.
Afterward, Ian Malcolm, Sarah Harding, Eddie Carr, and Jack Throne arrived at the nest while the parents were gone. The team had become aware of BioSyn's presence on the island when they saw their modified jeep going to the Tyrannosaurus territory and Arby and Kelly Curtis witnessed BioSyn's raid from the monitor inside the trailer while the adults driving to that location got reports over the radio from the two.
As they prepared to leave due to the parents soon returning to their nest, Eddie asked what would be done about the baby dinosaur with the broken leg. He was commanded by both Harding and Malcolm to kill it, as its broken leg would kill it regardless. However, Eddie, believing that the juvenile could easily be healed and returned back to its nest, instead secretly injected it with morphine and drove back to the trailer with the tyrannosaur. Thorne, Malcolm, and Levine believed Eddie's actions to be wrong, but Dr. Harding chose to heal the young T. rex anyway and the team puts a temporary cast on its broken leg.
While Malcolm and Harding were alone together trying to nurse the baby back to help the parents arrived and began to kick the trailer down a cliff even after the people inside gave them their baby. However, Throne scared off the Tyrannosaurs using the modified Biosyn jeep that had just been unstuck and that Thorne also found.
In the final encounter with the human visitors, the father Tyrannosaur approached Harding's Explorer just after Dodgson tried to get inside the vehicle. Dodgson hid underneath the vehicle with her, but she pushed him to the side where he was then snatched by the T. rex. Dodgson was then taken to be eaten by the hatchlings, one of which had just hatched.
The clones, as well as the rest of the dinosaurs, were doomed to extinction once more in the future due to the spread of the DX prions on Isla Sorna.
Biology and Behavior
Since in the Jurassic Park Adventures continuity the first two films occurred, the Tyrannosaurus depicted in the novellas share many traits with those seen in the previously stated films. The first Tyrannosaurus encountered by Eric Kirby had a gray skin color with red splotches and Eric writes in regarding its size as appearing to be fifteen feet in height and forty feet in length. Another T. rex encountered by Eric, however, had reddish-brown flanks like most depictions of Tyrannosaurus in the franchise.
The Tyrannosaurus family appears in the Topps adaptation of the second film. Their story remains mostly the same as the film. A notable difference in terms of their overall physiology is that all the Tyrannosaurs are a dark green color whereas in the film they each have their own unique skin color.
In the comic series Peter Ludlow survived the encounter with the young Tyrannosaurus Junior, albeit gaining horrific facial scarring and becoming disable from the encounter.
Tyrannosaurus has appeared in all Jurassic Park games. Listed below is a list of notable games featuring the dinosaur.
Tyrannosaurus is featured in the arcade version of Jurassic Park. In the game, the player encounters the T. rex three times within the game and is a boss at all times. In Area one, the Tyrannosaurus is the first dinosaur you encounter and is chasing you while you have to shoot at her head. At the end of Act two you encounter it again and you must defeat it the same way as the first time by shooting at its head, this time, however, the rex is harder to kill and has a health bar. At the end of the game in Act four you encounter the T. rex along with a second and you must defeat them at the same time by shooting at their heads, just like the previous time both of them also have health bars.
Tyrannosaurus appears in the arcade adaptation of The Lost World: Jurassic Park; both the male and the female T. rex's from the film served as the game's bosses, the female as the first boss in Stage 1 and the male as the last boss in Stage 5 after the female. The baby Tyrannosaurus is featured in Stages 4 and 5.
Tyrannosaurus appears in Jurassic Park: Chaos Island, as one of the strongest dinosaurs and the hardest to kill. The baby T. rex is also featured in two of the missions. In the bonus mission taking place during the San Diego incident, the player plays as the Tyrannosaurus rex; who oddly in the game is female, instead of male. The rex in the game resembles the Bull T. rex from The Lost World Series 1 toyline.
Tyrannosaurus is featured in the video game Warpath: Jurassic Park. Its attack patterns were the same as Acrocanthosaurus and Cryolophosaurus and has 3 colors: blue, green, and blue with orange stripes. Its arena was Freighter Deck.
In Jurassic Park: Trespasser, Tyrannosaurus is an enemy, being the most powerful adversary in the game. It is invincible, unless being killed by the Toxic Rifle, or other hidden weapons. It is said that InGen made seven T. rex, meaning seven kings of the prehistoric world, each of which would be faced at one point during the course of the game. The colors of some of the Tyrannosaurus rex were based on The Lost World: Jurassic Park. It is first seen in the Industrial Jungle and last seen in The Ascent's first part.
The Tyrannosaurus in Ascent 1 is called the "Alpha Tyrannosaurus" according to ingame files. The Alpha Tyrannosaurus also makes an appearance in the Trespasser Demo as well. In addition, another Tyrannosaurus skin didn't make the cut. This Tyrannosaurus was a brighter green than the normal green T. rex. It is unknown why this green Tyrannosaurus was scrapped, but it might have had to do with the fact that the skin was too high in quality.
Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis
Tyrannosaurus is one of the dinosaurs in the game Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis. It is a 5-star carnivore, and along with Spinosaurus, it is the most powerful carnivore in the game. It will devour guests, swallowing the guest whole after first shaking them around violently, making it mirror the death of Gennaro in the first film. The T. rex in the game is green, reflecting the appearance of the specimen seen in Jurassic Park III, though a number of user-created reskins depicting the animal as it appeared in other films can be found on the internet. The Tyrannosaurus' sociability among others of its kind is usually isolated, when another Rex encounters another they engage in combat against one another for territorial rights which eventually leads to death. It is seldom seen where both dinosaurs coexist with one another.
Tyrannosaurus is feared by most of the herbivores and small carnivores in the game. It does not scare the Brachiosaurus because it is too big to be attacked. The Spinosaurus can eliminate the predator with a Jurassic Park III-style snap to the neck, though the T. rex can also kill the Spinosaur using a similar method, crushing its neck with its powerful jaws and then throwing it to the ground.
Jurassic Park III: Park Builder
Jurassic Park: Builder
Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the available dinosaurs in the simulation game Jurassic Park: Builder. Though it requires dino-dollars purchase.
Jurassic World: The Game
Tyrannosaurus rex can be created in the mobile game Jurassic World: The Game.
LEGO Jurassic World
The Tyrannosaurus is one of the playable dinosaurs in LEGO Jurassic World. As the game is based on all four films, the Tyrannosaurus rex appears at several points in the game. Due to the humorous nature of the game, the Tyrannosaurs as most of the Dinosaurs in the game are depicted with human-like intelligence, doing things like eating hamburgers wearing a bib and drinking coffee. Also though the Tyrannosaurs in the game still eat people, they usually end up spitting them out alive later on such as Rexy spiting out Donald Gennaro after defeating The Big One. Another example is the captured Tyrannosaur Buck spitting out Robert Burke and the other InGen Hunters. Also the Infant T. rex does not eat Peter Ludlow, instead Ludlow is taken back to Isla Sorna where he becomes part of the infant's mobile. When Rexy ate Donald Gennaro, she opened her mouth again, and he was using the toilet cleaner to supposedly "clean" Rexy's teeth.
Both the Infant T. rex and adult T. rex are playable, unlocked once the Tyrannosaurus' Amber Brick is obtained in the Control Room level, by breaking the LEGO glass on a Vending Machine found in the level with Lex Murphy's Scream ability. Once the Amber Brick is obtained the Infant and Adult Tyrannosaurus are unlocked for Free Play. However only the Infant can be selected from the character selection menu, while the Adult can only be summoned via Dino Spawners capable of spawning large dinosaurs, such as the one in the Tyrannosaur Paddock and other large open areas. Rexy can also be released into the Tyrannosaur Enclosure located in Jurassic World via shooting an electric switch using an Electric rifle. The playable Adult Tyrannosaur has two abilities, Roar and Dino Strength. Its Roar ability allows it to break Amber LEGO objects and destructible objects by roaring. Dino Strength allows it to break special Dino strength objects. The Infant T. rex however has no special abilities.
During certain points in the story, Tyrannosaurs can be controlled to fight enemy dinosaurs such as The Big One, Spinosaurus, and Indominus rex which act as boss battles. Also an adult Tyrannosaurus Skeleton can be unlocked as a playable character via collecting all 10 Minikits in Jurassic Park's Visitor Center chapter (Kitchen Escape, Control Room, and Main Hall). This will also unlock the Tyrannosaur hologram in Jurassic World's Innovation Center. The playable T. rex Skeleton uses the same animation, vocal effects, and abilities as the standard T. rex.
Like all the Dinosaurs in the game, the player can customize their own Tyrannosaurus. Through customization the Tyrannosaurus head option can be added to other dinosaurs to grant them the ability to roar like a Tyrannosaurus.
T. rex will appear in Jurassic World: Evolution, seen in the announcement trailer.
Behind the scenes
Mark "Crash" McCreery created the design of the T. rex that was used in the film. McCreery was working on Terminator 2: Judgment Day when the late Stan Winston moved him from that project to create sketches of the T. rex to generate interest in the film for Universal Studios. His first drawing was of the T. rex running against a plain white background as a motion study. His second was of the T. rex in a jungle setting lifting its left leg high in an attack stance reminiscent of a bird of prey. McCreery created the designs without a reference to go by, creating the drawings with what he remembered in his mind of then current information and new paleontological findings. After these sketches were done, Winston showed Steven Spielberg what McCreery had created and Speilberg gave his suggestions for the design of the animal. He felt that the design depicted in McCreery's drawings should have longer legs to hold the weight of it and that the feet were too small and bird-like. Speilberg also felt that the forearms looked weak.
Several paleoartists were contacted in 1990, notably to design the T. rex. Among those consulted were Mark Hallett, Gregory S. Paul, and John Gurche. As his first assignment from production designer Rick Carter, Mark Hallet created concept art of the T. rex breakout. Afterward, Hallett created concept art of the Tyrannosaur's attack on the explorers and then storyboards of the Tyrannosaur's attack from the driver's side view of one of the tour vehicles. Finally, he created a character study of the T. rex. Concept art of scenes featured of the T. rex by Craig Mullins, David Negron, John Bell, and Tom Cranham, resemble Hallet's design. Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul created skeletal and muscle studies of the Tyrannosaurus rex to be used as the base form of the dinosaur. Paleoartist John Gurche also did concept art of the T. rex, these concepts being its anatomy and reconstructions that were accurate for its time. Paleontologist Dr. Robert Bakker sent the filmmakers diagrams of Tyrannosaurus teeth, but according to Bakker "the powers that be didn't like the real tooth shape" and used a different, inaccurate design for its teeth. The eyes of the T. rex were kept party by director Steven Spielberg because he felt it looked better when she was running toward the camera.
Winston and McCreery would spend months redesigning the T. rex multiple times until a finalized design was reached. When sculpting the 1/5 scale maquettes, Stan Winston and Mike Trcic spent time focusing on the design of the Tyrannosaurus' head, with the maquettes going through over thirteen different head designs as according to Paul Mejias, "[The dinosaurs] had to be perfect." Trcic created several anatomically accurate T. rex head sculpts as a potential design, but this would go unused in favor of a broader head and exposed front teeth. According to Gregory S. Paul, Trcic also used one of Paul's T. rex skeletals when designing the T. rex, but director Steven Spielberg and Stan Winston ordered the dinosaurs to receive alternations from the current scientific knowledge of the dinosaurs Paul created skeletals for to copyright their designs, even though Trcic wanted to strictly use Gregory S. Paul's diagrams. However, Trcic has said that after many arguments with Winston over the design of the T. rex, the T. rex design was "60% where [he] wanted it to be." McCreery then created another design of the T. rex based on what the maquette.
Early concepts of the T. rex depicted her as having a green coloration with black striping. The final coloration of the T. rex chosen for the first film was a dark brown color. McCreery explained that the reasoning behind this was because an animal as large as T. rex would not need camouflage and that the team feared that too strong of a coloration might make it look fake. A green coloration would later be used for the males in The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III.
The design that "Crash" McCreery first created would later be colored and used in promotional material for Jurassic Park and its sequel The Lost World: Jurassic Park.
Transition to CGI
Originally, most of the wide shots of the dinosaurs were to be portrayed by go motion animation created by Phil Tippett. With consultation from Mark Hallett, Stefan Dechant had created digital animatics featuring a computer generated T. rex, but these were replaced by the go motion animatics created by Tippett Studio. An animatic was even created of the breakout sequence featuring the go motion T. rex. Tippit and his team sent Spielberg animation tests of Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor. Though a motion blur was added to the make the stop motion dinosaurs more realistic, Speilberg felt that the movements of the dinosaurs were still jerky. Dennis Muren then suggested to Speilberg that Industrial Light and Magic create computer generated full-sized dinosaurs. Interested, Speilberg requested a test be made featuring CGI dinosaurs.
After ILM created a herd of Gallimimus skeletons running, Steve 'Spaz' Williams with support and assistance from Mark AZ Dippe, his friend and confidant, created a running Tyrannosaurus skeleton during off-hours and in-between assignments at ILM. The reference he used for the skeleton came from page 341 of Gregory S. Paul's 1988 book Predatory Dinosaurs of the World.
Spielberg was not fully convinced to use CGI for the dinosaurs until ILM made more tests featuring a fully fleshed T. rex and said T. rex chasing a herd of fully fleshed Gallimimus. This skin was rendered by Stefan Fangmeier. Though the dinosaurs were to be now CGI in the film, the stop motion animatics and tests would be used as a reference for the animatronic dinosaurs.
A full-sized Tyrannosaurus animatronic was created by Stan Winston Studio for the filming of the dinosaur's breakout. Taking two years to make, the animatronic was the first animatronic to be mounted on a motion simulator to achieve gross body movements and at the time was the largest animatronic the studio ever produced only being surpassed by the Spinosaurus animatronic created for Jurassic Park III. Powered primarily by hydraulics, a 1/5 scale telemetry device shaped like the dinosaur was used to provide the movements of the full sized animatronic with the eyes being radio controlled. Another animatronic was also used for shots of its feet that was an underbelly on a rolling platform with hydraulic legs and tail. Another prop was a separate head with extra detailing and added mechanics used for close-up photography.
There had been plans to create a full-sized sleeping T. rex that was later conceived as a miniature when Stan Winston proposed to the studio that the money that was to be used for this animatronic be used to create the full-sized Tyrannosaurus instead until the sleeping T. rex was scrapped altogether. Concept art was even created by "Crash" McCreery of this cut prop. Stan Winston Studio also considered using a 1/5 scale rod puppet before the full-sized animatronic was conceived. This concept would later be put to life for the sequel Jurassic Park III, but only as a test. Speilberg had also originally wanted the animatronic Tyrannosaurus to be a freestanding and that was able to walk until it was discovered that it was not possible and he realized how impractical it would be.
The animatronics were filmed on set at Warner Brothers Studio Stage 16. For the filming of the attack sequence, the animatronic with legs  and the insert head were used. The insert head in particular was manipulated by a highly poseable hydraulic powered crane as well as man-power.
There were troubles while filming the scene as both the animatronics began to shiver due to their latex skin absorbing the rain, requiring the crew to dry the animatronics down after every shot. Filming also received a major setback when the head-turn cylinder of the full-sized animatronic broke, though this was quickly repaired. Overall, shooting of the scene was finished four days ahead of schedule.
Change of Ending
In the original endings for Jurassic Park, one raptor was to be crushed by one of the falling skeletons while the other would either be moved and crushed to the jaws of the T. rex skeleton by Dr. Grant using a crane or by Hammond shooting the raptor. Another ending would have also featured Hammond coming killing the first raptor with a bazooka while Dr. Grant used a crane to kill the remaining raptor like one of the other ending.Rexy was even scripted to die like her novel counterpart at one point. These endings and her death were scrapped from the film because Spielberg believed the T. rex to be the star of the film alongside the smaller Velociraptor.
Phil Tippit worked with ILM in post production to create the dinosaur input device or DID for short; an armature like that seen in go motion models that could be manipulated by Tippit and his team of stop-motion animators. Out of the four DIDs created, two were for T. rex while other two were for the raptors. The T. rex DIDs was only used for the road attack sequence while ILM created the rest of the shots featuring T. rex as Tippitt's team and ILM were originally going to work together until it was decided that both would be split into two teams.
The digital model for the T. rex received several changes from Spielberg that differed from the animatronic, these changes being a different arm length, larger and stockier feet, and a more streamlined jaw as well as adjustments to her eyes.
The female roars were created from crocodiles, lions, alligators, dog, penguin, tiger, and elephant layered together. Whale blowholes were also used looped to create the sound of the dinosaur breathing. The sound of Rexy as it kills the Gallimimus was simply Rydstrom's dog, a Jack Russell Terrier named "Buster", playing with a rope toy. The footsteps of the T. rex were of redwood trees being cut down and falling to the ground.
The iconic high-frequency "scream" originates from a baby elephant that Gary Rydstrom and his team recorded. It was only recorded once creating this sound and the team tried to get the elephant to create the sound again, but it refused to do so. Because of this, Rydstrom used the same elephant sound for each take. This elephant sound was used for mid-range frequencies with an alligator's growl and tiger's roar added.
The Lost World: Jurassic Park
For the The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a female, male, and juvenile Tyrannosaurus were set to appear in the film.
In the digital storyboards by Stefan Dechant the male was depicted as either yellow and gray or as the same color as the female. John Rosengrant later devised the green color scheme for the male. One such concept by Rosengrant was a colored version of the 1991 T. rex concept art for the first film. Another color scheme applied to this same concept art would be widely used in promotional material for the film. Even though the Buck was given a different skin color to differentiate it from the female, Stan Winston Studio was concerned that this would be difficult to see in low-light conditions. So Shane Mahan began to manipulate images of the T. rex from the first film, creating a series of eight head designs that he sent to Speilberg. The design chosen by Speilberg featured larger brows, a scarred face, and a neck wattle.
Joey Orosco created the concept art for the juvenile. The juvenile went through many changes in his color scheme, such as one of his maquettes depicting him as brown, another maquette depicting him as bright green, and one paint scheme of his animatronic depicting him as a duller green. However, evidence in the film and promotional photos of the animatronic suggest that Junior is actually a mix of brown and green.
The female also received a new skin color as well, her skin being lighter than the previous female that appeared in the first film. However, promotional material depicted her as a darker brown and sometimes with a bluish tent to her head.
For close-up shots in the film, two animatronics were used to primarily to depict the tyrannosaur parents using the armatures of the full-body animatronic and insert-head of the first T. rex, the female in particularly using the insert-head armature. Unlike the first full-sized T. rex animatronic, the animatronics for the parents was from head to mid-torso with arms and were mounted on rail powered dolly carts. This was done because Stan Winston Studio discovered there no need to make a full sized animatronic like in Jurassic Park as the audience only the head and half the body could be seen. Furthermore, the carts provided more mobility and freedom when compared to the motion platform. The most notable usages of the animatronics were when the parents approach the trailer and when they attack Eddie Carr.
Two animatronics were used to portray the juvenile. One was a mixture of hydraulics and cables used when he was laying on his side while the other was remote controlled and used when someone was carrying him.
From Pteranodons to San Diego
In one of the original endings for The Lost World: Jurassic Park, Pteranodon or Geosternbergia (then classified as a species of Pteranodon) were to attack the rescue helicopter at the end of the film. While at his vacation home in the Hamptons for the Fourth of July, director Steven Spielberg suddenly saw an image in his mind of a boy looking out of his bedroom to seen a T. rex drinking from the family swimming pool. Prompted by the image he saw, Spielberg changed the ending to what is seen in the completed film and included the image he saw as the scene where the Buck approaches the house of young Benjamin and his family.
In one concept of the T. rex being transported, it appears the mother was to be captured instead of the father as this T. rex is brown instead if green.
For the male, pigs and "weird Costa Rican mammals", mammals that Gary Rydstrom and his team recorded but never knew what their identities were, had a similar screech like the baby elephant used for the females and were used in place of the latter. The juvenile's vocalizations were of a baby camel crying for its mother. The original T. rex roars were also reused for the female.
Jurassic Park III
In early logo designs for the film, Tyrannosaurus was to be featured like in the previous two films. Many of the logos had the same T. rex design used in the logos for the previous films, but there were different designs exhibited in the preliminary logos such as the T. rex with a more widened mouth, the T. rex more upright and looking straight ahead, and a full skeleton of T. rex roaring.
For Jurassic Park III, the filmmakers wanted to have another dinosaur to replace Tyrannosaurus from the previous two films and searched through many candidates in the process. Eventually Spinosaurus was chosen after Paleontologist Jack Horner suggested Spinosaurus to the filmmakers as a replacement and from the discovery of a Spinosaur skull during the pre-production of the film.
During early development of the film, Stan Winston Studio created a 1/5 scale rod-puppet T. rex. They filmed this rod-puppet in forced perspective to create several tests to see if they could prove a concept that would work. This rod-puppet would ultimately go unused in the film.
Director Joe Johnston created the famous Spino vs T. rex as an homage to Ray Harryhausen's go motion dinosaurs and wanted to recreate a modern version of those fights. In one draft of the script the carcass the Tyrannosaurus was eating was a sauropod when the actual prop used in the film is the Parasaurolophus carcass used in The Lost World: Jurassic Park repainted and the carcass itself is left unidentified in the film.
For the battle, the animatronic of the Buck was refurbished. Due to how powerful the mechanical Spinosaur was, the Spino destroyed the Tyrannosaurus with one final blow that broke its neck which in turn caused its head to collapse, releasing hydraulic fluid that John Rosengrant described as being "almost like blood spewing". Rosengrant further described the destruction of the animatronic as "[A] really sad ending to a long night of shooting". Over 20 seconds of footage of the fight, particularly of the animatronics, was cut from the film. Despite this, a shot of the animatronic fight where the Spinosaur slaps the Tyrannosaur was still present in the theatrical trailer.
For the CG T. rex, the model of the Buck from the previous film was reused with some updates. New geometry was created for its surfaces so that it would work better in ILM's simulations. New animation controls were added as well that were up to date at the time the computer graphics were created for the film and the model's UV Maps were reworked, though originally the ones from The Lost World were to be used.
The battle is very controversial among fans of the franchise due to the fact that the T. rex, which had been well received by many fans, lost the battle. For more details on who would win a fight see the article Spinosaurus vs. T. rex Scene. The destruction of the mounted Spinosaurus in Main Street from the Tyrannosaurus Rexy in the fight at the end of the fourth film Jurassic World is a reference to this infamous fight.
Was the JPIII Rex a Sub-Adult?
It is popularly believed that this Tyrannosaurus was a sub-adult due to JPIII size charts giving lower size estimates than that of previous size estimates given to Tyrannosaurus rex of the franchise and because it had a brighter coloration than that of the Tyrannosaur Buck, a fully grown adult male. However, there are problems with this theory. Regarding skin color, every tyrannosaur in the films has their own unique skin color and the Tyrannosaur Doe, an adult, has lighter colored skin than Rexy who is an adult as well. As for size, size is inconsistent in the films and their supplementary material. Furthermore, since there has been no official source found or released thus far that confirms that this individual was a subadult its smaller size could be something else instead of just simply being a subadult. It can be noted that size can vary within a species and that there have been individuals of a species that can grow smaller or larger than the average size given for that said species.
Jurassic World saw the return of Rexy, the T. rex that appeared in Jurassic Park. Director Colin Trevorrow described the film "This is [the Tyrannosaur's] Unforgiven." The T. rex model was created by Steve Jubinville and the director aimed to make the model look as close as possible to its design in the first film. The Jurassic World Tyrannosaurus was made to look older by giving her the scars she received from the end of Jurassic Park as well as tightened skin. The T. rex was primarily portrayed with performance capture technology rather than life-sized animatronics.
The design of the film's Tyrannosaurus is a notably popular way to depict Tyrannosaurus in media. The silhouette of the T. rex from the Jurassic Park III size chart was even used in a now-defunct BBC Nature article about dinosaurs.
Mike Trcic expressed disappointment with the popularity of this design in an interview with Shannon Shea (who worked with Trcic on Jurassic Park). In the interview, he said regarding how popular the design had become, “Whenever I search Google images for a Tyrannosaurus Rex [sic], most of the art I see is based on the original JP Rex. It’s a shame that people just accept that somehow it IS what a T-Rex [sic] looked like. It’s limiting because unless someone can travel back 65 million years, how can anyone be completely sure?”
The vocalizations that were created by Gary Rydstrom are also a popularly used sound effect. Jurassic World sound designer Al Nelson said in regards to how famous its roars were in the films: "The T. rex is one of the most iconic sounds in all of film history. Every sound designer knows it. Almost any kid knows it. When you hear it you're like 'That's the T. rex!'"
Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, Velociraptor, and Parasaurolophus have appeared in all four films thus far.
Notes and references
|Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Brachiosaurus • Dilophosaurus • Gallimimus • Parasaurolophus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic Park: The Game Dinosaurs|
|Compsognathus • Dilophosaurus • Herrerasaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Troodon • Triceratops • Tylosaurus • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Compsognathus • Edmontosaurus • Gallimimus • Mamenchisaurus • Pachycephalosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic Park III Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Brachiosaurus • Ceratosaurus • Compsognathus • Corythosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Spinosaurus • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic World Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Apatosaurus • Dimorphodon • Gallimimus • Indominus rex • Mosasaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Playable Warpath Dinosaurs|
|Acrocanthosaurus • Albertosaurus • Ankylosaurus • Carcharodontosaurus • Cryolophosaurus • Giganotosaurus • Megaraptor • Pachycephalosaurus • Spinosaurus • Stygimoloch • Styracosaurus • Suchomimus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex|